The electronic information technology has increasingly developed from the automation of indexing and retrieval systems. Computer networks, ranging from local area networks to internation-al internetworks, make inter-connectivity locally as well as across international borders a reality. Academic tea ching faculty, researchers, and students use telecommuni-cations network to exchange information on a daily basis via e-mail,computer conferences , and by trans-ferring files and download- ing copies to their computer desktops.
This paper describes the application of new information technology (computers and telecommunications) for accessing documents using electronic networks along with the development of the electronic do cument delivery system. The system can provide instant access to needed information without relying on the manual interlending services. Copyright compliance and legal considerations for accessing documents over net-works will be touched upon.
Information technology has enhanced our daily library operations by automating the organization, storage, and retrieval of information. Technologies such as public access catalogues and other databas es have increased access to bibliographic information, providing faster and more efficient access to wider materials.
Microcomputers have become indispensable tools in our daily life because of the decrease in hardware prices and increase in computer power, speeds, and memory capabilities comparable to the most powe rful minicomputers a few years ago. There is increasing use of micro- computer systems, such as personal computers and UNIX-based multi-user workstations. Use of telecommunications, using networking, is the essential factor for inter-connection among all small systems. The purpose of the network is to move data from one place to another. Networks are often called "Data Highways" for this reason. Just as highways connect towns from one place to another, networks connect computers and people using those computers to exchange information. Now Users of computer systems are able to access inform ation from several sources in preparation of a document. This is vastly different from the capabilities of the telephone network built to carry voice signals at a fixed speed of 64,000 bps. The telec ommunication networks use a common language in digital form.
Due to heavy financial pressures,libraries are forced to shift from the acquisitions for local materials to providing access to those at remote libraries. Nowadays, technological capabilities (and t heir costs to libraries) are increasing, while libraries purchasing power for maintaining the depth and breadth of their collections is decreasing. This was due largely to reduced support for librari es and library programs at the national and state levels, reduction of the value of the dollar against foreign currencies, and increases in the amount of foreign material being published as well as t he prices for such materials. We find ourselves debating about access versus ownership. Consequently, as a result of the increase in biblio-graphic access in searching CD_ROMS and other remote netwo rked-accessible catalogues, the discrepancy between bibliographic access and document delivery will become wider.
Libraries have become increasingly dependent on accessing information from outside sources using manual or electronic document delivery services. As more libraries automate their catalogues, bibliogr aphic and holdings information are made available through union databases and over networks, including LAN, WAN, MAN, Internet and dialups, Interlibrary lending and document delivery services have al so expanded rapidly. As more information is converted to or published in electronic formats and distributed over telecommunications channels, a revolution is developing in traditional ways to access and receive documents and information.
Traditionally, the user has depended on the library staff and often bureaucratic procedures to participate in interlending and document delivery programs. Now technology makes it easy or users to pla y a role and be involved in electronically accessing the information from electronic journal databases using Internet, World Wide Web (WWW) and other telecommunications methods. Responses that previo usly took a minimum of a two-weeks turn around time are now forthcoming within hours. The World Wide Web is a very good step in linking related files. The ability to point and click on related topics rather than conducting unique searches for each related subject is a big improvement over the Internet. In reality, there is a wealth of information available on the Net.
In this presentation, I would like to examine not only how the electronic environment is shaping the components of resource sharing in general and document delivery in particular, but I would like t o touch on how a number of types of communications which have networks with their advantages and disadvantages contributing to the increasing need for resource sharing. All these technologies are par t of the electronic library , virtual library, or global library which is still evolving. However, to some, the phrase "electronic library" brings to mind networking CD-ROM"s; to others, the world o f e-mail, Internet and the World Wide Web which are integral parts of the definition; still others go far beyond this and envision some distinct entity that serves as a coordinating agency (storing, archiving and providing access) for electronic materials in a consortium-like setting.
Marjorie Bloss's definition is that the electronic library consists of the hardware and software components that allow us to transmit, transfer and , in some cases , manipulates data (text, images, a udio, video,etc.) electronically from our workstation to an external source and back again." It implies the digitizing, identifying, storing and preserving of information for simultaneous use.
The term "Global Village " refers to information technology which transmits instantly data from one computer in any place in the world to another computer over networks.The National Informa-tion Inf rastructure (NII) is based on the interconnections among computers and the communication networks. This information infra-structure has great impacts on our lives, society,and our working habits in g eneral and on libraries in particular.
There are many types of communication networks:
The Internet access to electronic information sources is an area of great potential for document delivery services. It provides greater convenience to faculty, students and librarians to access infor mation from their computers in their offices or homes.
Networking is essential in today's computer environments. It turns isolated computers into integrated systems, providing an environment where resources are shared and capacity problems reduced. There are many advantages in using communication networking:
These systems have improved the ILL and document delivery services because the user has depended tradit-ionally on the library staff to provide him/her with the needed materials.
In the coming electronic age, electronic information is available through networks, the user would submit his request electronically to the library which would search for the bibliographic citation o f the printed material. Printed material would be sent out for delivery by mail or fax. Over the last several years , end-user services have become standard practice. Libraries have invested heavily in CD-ROM and online citation databases. Local systems and linked local systems are common. Hypertext and the World Wide Web are making electronic resources both accessible and attractive to end-user s. Library patrons are finding more, and more materials related to their topics and consequently expecting their libraries to provide those materials as quickly and easily as they find the citations. OPACS on the Internet, commercial suppliers,full-text are increasing. Electronic information would be accessed from the electronic database either from the library's OPAC or commercial database and transmitted over the network and to the user's network.
Today, information technology makes it easy for users to play their role and becomes involved in electroni-cally accessing the needed information by themselves from journal database using the Interne t, World Wide Web (WWW) and other electroninc methods. Responses that previously took a minimum of two weeks turn around time are now forthcom-ing with less than a couple of hours.
OCLC's Resource Sharing Strategy white paper states the goals of OCLC as follows: (December 1994)
We will cite some examples of the producers of electronic journals and the role of commercial document delivery vendors in making it easier for end-users to search and electronically access informat ion immediately without the intervention of any librarians in the process. Here are some of the examples as follows:
The first step toward the integration of PRISM ILL, FirstSearch and document delivery is available now. Since its introduction in April 1993, OCLC has received more than 100,000 requests over the lin k to PRISM. Now OCLC is investigating services that would enhance the link by eliminating the need for staff processing by the borrowing library and including full-text delivery as a normal part of I LL. OCLC is accepting requests from other systems-libraries are sending ILL workforms to PRISM electronically through ILL PRISM transfer, eliminating the need for hand-written paper forms. Also,new a nd upcoming services such as ILL Fee Management (IFM) and customs holdings are intended to facilitate the programs and agreements among libraries.
In addition, users are able to search OCLC-distributed online journals with Guidon, an interface software that runs under windows or with the World Wide Web (WWW) access program, Mosaic and netscape. To subscribe,go to OCLC's HomePage at http://www.oclc.org Select "OCLC and its Products, and click on "Product Information." Select the Online Journal of Knowledge Synthesis for Nursing, and got to the end to find the order form. Guidon can handle page images that have been digitized by electronic scanning of published pages. However, it also handles digital documents encoded with Standa rd Generalized Markup Language (SGML). A standardized code for identifying different elements in an electronic document. SGML has become the preferred format for electronic publishing.
Nowadays, end-users can search and access electroni-cally full-text documents to their PCs from OCLC Electronic Journals Online Database Program (EJO). EJO provides immediate access, 23 hours a day, to journal information from any location using multiple access methods, including Internet and dial-access. (6)
A second experiment, called Red Sage,(2) allows 330 users at the university of California, San Fransico and other locations to see online versions of 70 publications from 19 publishers, covering radi ology, molecular biology, and other topics. And 135 users at several Bristol-MyersSquibb sites can view 13 titles from eight publishers on molecular biology, biochemistry,and other topics. THIRD: Document Delivery Vendors:(13) who signed agreements with publishers in order to deliver their products in electronic formats who are willing to pay copyright royalties rather than signing lic ensing agreements. Some of these vendors are as follows:
This scenario described above presents the reality and future vision of how scholars can conduct their research in the very near future. The impact of this scenario presents a challenge to libraria ns.
The technology has made it easy to research the paper ,write it, revise it, and print it and even share it all from the same place of the microcomputer.
We envision, when the electronic library exists in the future, there will be no interlending services because there will be no need for them. All journal articles are digitized and available at anyti me, much to the delight of end-users.
Copyright is still a problem with electronic documents. The authors and editors of electronic journals currently follow this method of accessing and sharing ideas. Electronic journals permit authors to retain copyright. In most cases copying is allowed for non-commercial use.
Current copyright law is inadequate for electronic journals because these journals are distributed via telecommunications such as Internet and Bitnet. There are many ways of distributing issues or in dividual articles. Files, containing an issue or article, can be sent via e-mail or file transfer (FTP) to subscribers . Another method used is to distribute a table of contents file to sub-scribers via e-mail and let the subscribers retrieve needed files.
However, Charles Oppenheim (11) indicates that E-Journals passing over the Internet, is just as much copyright as any other material. It is likely that the authors choose to waive their copyright. Th ere are some electronic journals produced by commercial publishers which may or may not be charged for. It is worth to readers that material contained in such journals remains the copyright of either the author or (assuming it has been assigned) of the publisher, and that down-loading,redissmenating, printing out of articles ,...etc. will be considered infringement unless it can be justified as " fair dealing".
Solutions are on the horizon that promise to increase network speeds to even 250 mbps, bridges, routers, and gateways. Some systems require a higher amount of brandwith to ensure smooth operation. Legal aspects of the copyright compliance will be resolved in the near future.
What remains to be accomplished is the education of the users on how to select which library catalog would be appropriate to search for the needed material over internet. The user should know the too ls of the Internet in order to conduct his search and the Library should implement the Z39.50 standard which would help the user to process his request as mentioned previously in the senario. Theref ore, the Internet Document delivery will be part of the electronic library and offers potential for retriev-ing and transmitting electronic journals either in digital or digitized forms without relyi ng on the library staff.
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