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China Academy of Social Sciences--CASS is located in Beijing. It is granted by the Chinese government. Its researches are mainly conducted on the national social sciences schedule in recent years. Some enterprises, organizations and individuals entrust it with research work. At present, some 5,000 faculties work in over 32 professional research institutes which including economics, law, sociology , trade, religion, philosophy, literature, nationality problem and international relation, etc.
Compared with natural science, the researches of social science are more dependent upon information and documents, so the information and intellectual density is high in CASS, and the home and abroad communication is frequent. Accordingly, the documents on social sciences are in a rich collection, even documents of some disciplines hold a lead in China. The research results are information produc t too, e.g. monograph, thesis, research report. CASS library is responsible for information receiving and literature collection, and information outputs are processed by publishers and distributors .
CASS decides to develop the traditional library into an electronic library, that is, information communication is carried out by electronic network. Some schedules were formulated, part of them have already been implemented. This plan embraces two aspects:
The following is the introduction of experience and envision of the digitizing and networking in CASS.
Discipline Quantity (10000 vol.) Percentage Total 506 100 History 149 29 Literature & Linguistics 97 19 Economics 77 15 Sociology & Ethnology 48 9.5 Foreign Research 43 8.5 Politics & Law 41 8 Philosophy & Religion 36 7 Others 20 4 Resource: TheDocument and Information Centre of CASS ( 1992)
The composition of media types is demonstrated by the following table:
Medium Type Amount(unit: 10,000 vol.) Proportion Total 506 100 Ancient Books 62.5 12.27 Books & Periodicals 425 73.6 Non-book Materials 22 9.81 Others 4.31 Source: The Document and Information Center of CASS(1992)
a. The information which our research mostly need, such as the CASS library collection catalogue, library holding periodicals.
b. The information which is used in international communication. The reform in China has been taken for more than ten years, the economy has developed at high speed, and great successes have been achieved, at the same time, works on economics, law and so on in these periods can be surely used for reference for the developing countries .
c. The China ancient books and minority nationality documents in CASS.
a. Building machine readable catalogue databases of the whole books in CASS.
This is the focal point of our digitizing work, which will make all the catalogues into standard machine-readable MARC form. Totally the books are about 500 million volumes ( not including ancient books), including different disciplines, in different languages. At present there are 20 thousand MARC data , we are going to finish recalling the whole data in our academy in five years.
b. Building machine-readable catalogue databases of the whole periodicals in CASS .
This is similar to the first one , the difference is that the databases include not only periodicals catalogues, but also periodical paper subjects. In order to save library storage space, all the obsolete periodicals will be made to microfilms, this will also be done in five years.
c. Building databases of specialized documents.
This is mainly used for international communication. At present, our academy has built specialized economic document databases. The databases has collected the papers which were published in the chief economical periodicals in China in recent five years, The contents including resources, subjects, abstracts and etc.. Another plan is to build full-text database of law which was issued in recent years, the database is mainly the laws concerning foreign affairs or foreign nationals, it can server for foreign businessmen, and foreign scholars.
d. Building multi-medium databases of China ancient books.
The contents include: the rare books in our academy, the original handwritings of historical famous persons , archaeological pictures and so on. At present the database of rare reliable text books has been started, the multi-medium databases such as original handwritings are being planned.
e. Building factual databases.
The research in social science has the tendency of developing from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis. Therefore, we are preparing to digitize the factual tool books in our academy, in order to meet varying needs.
a. The problems which the MARC has been existing.
Machine-readable catalogues all comes from LC-MARC, including CN-MARC made in China . Since at that time the formulating is based on the computer technology of that time , now to some extent the MARC form is backward , the typical show is: cumbersome field-setting, duplicated contents. Although in theory different kinds of MARC records can be interchanged, it is difficult in practice.
b. The difficulty for choosing multi-language software platform.
There hasn't been a good multi-language software platform which is compatible for Chinese, western languages, Japanese , Russian and so on. So it is easy to make mistakes. Though the international standard about large character group has been officially issued , the relevant operating system has not been set out, these is a problem for us to solve . In another hand, the Chinese minority languages have not relevant computer processing software.
c. The difficulty in building multi-medium databases.
At present the multi-medium technology can not settle the digitizing problem of Chinese calligraphy and painting. Even if it had been settled , the retrieval would be difficult.
Abundant information resources present plentiful reference materials for the research fellows,create a good environment, and so the research findings of the Academy are rich. The research findings are mainly outputted in the following forms :treatises, academic dissertations, research reports, learned materials, translations, translation texts, reference books and softwares, etc. Accounting in wo rd, the proportions of the findings in every forms can be found in the following table:
Type of Research Findings Number of Word (10,000) Percent Distribution Total 55071.1 100 Learned Material 9464.5 26.79 Treatise 8497 24.05 Reference book 7351 20.08 Academic Dissertation 3708 10.21 Teaching Material and Popular Reading 2999 8.49 Translation 1211.6 3.43 Research Report 674 1.91 General Article 376 1.06 Source: Statistical year report of CASS(1992) The information listed above can occupy 200M computer storage space.
The following table reflects the state of the scholars' international interchange:
Forms Number of Go Abroad Number of Visitor 1991 1992 1991 1992 Total 578 710 978 783 Academic Visit 235 241 365 297 Co-research 73 63 34 52 Lecturing 12 11 21 15 Advanced Studies 70 70 35 7 Bilateral Workshops 31 63 53 187 International Meeting 107 140 352 93 Working Visit 29 24 91 101 Other 21 98 20 31 Source: Statistical year report of CASS(1992)The direct information exchange is effective, but it is greatly limited by much of objective conditions.
Interna- Research Ins- Embassy Societies & The Press tional titutes of UN Associations Offices National Government Ministries Societies & Universities The Press Offices &Commissions Associations Editorial Offices Local Local Gover- Local Local nment Academies Universities Sciences of Social Sciences
unit in the Academy PSTN ------->Homes of Research Fellows |____________| |_____| | | Trunk of the network | | China DDN CHINAPAC---->Internet
It's mainly to manage research projects, scientific search programs and research findings, the most important of all is the research findings manage system, which gathering the findings of every year step by step;
b. Information business
It means to storage all the information resources(books, periodicals) in the CASS library and in every unit into computer network and to present retrieval service to internal users at any time.
c. Management business
It mainly indicates the office automation to storage all kinds of administration information into the network in order to improve the management level of all the Academy.
Network technology design: according to information traffic, information geographical distribution and the frequency of using, CASS DDN uses circle arboraceous topological structure. The trunk of the network uses optical fibre, and the information transmission ratio is 100M bps.
Working state: The CASS DDN has been carried out for one year, the computer network of the Academy library is established, office automation DDN isalso completed, the trunk of the network is estimated to get through in 1996.
Second, to extend the network into research fellows' homes . Now many research fellows of CASS begin to write with another kind of pen--computer. Itís estimated that the percentage of the families that having computers can reach 20%--30%. Otherwise, most of families have installed telephone, so that the terminal users have the basic conditions to connect with the network. Using the public telep hone network and modem, we plan to connect most families 'computers with network in the next 3 or 5 years, andachieve three goals: terminal users' retrieving information of library at any time; Direct connect with international and domestic scholars of the same occupation; Adding their research findings to the network. Now, the library network has had the ability to take in a few terminal use rs.
Third, to connect the network with universial Internet. At the end of 1994, Chinese Ministry of Posts & Telecommunications started CHINADDN & CHINAPAC, and reached an agreement with Sprint Comp. of America that CHINAPAC & CHINADDN can directly connect with universal Internet by using the route offered by the company. Within the next few years, we also plan to apply for a special DDN route from Be ijing Telegraph Office--the institute managing Internet in Beijing, to start our Scientific Research Information Network, to connect with internet, and at last to realize information sharing.