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62nd IFLA General Conference - Conference Proceedings - August 25-31, 1996

The Development of Chinese Modern Library

Prof. Gao Jisheng
Architecture School of Tsinghua University


Part 1: Library buildings in various history periods of China

China has a long history in library cause. Tianyi pavilion, which was built in Ningbo of Zhejiang in Ming dynasty (1561 1566), is the oldest library building that still remains in china. After that, the seven pavilions (Wenyuan pavilion in Palace of Museum in Beijing, Wenyuan pavilion in Yuan Ming Yuan, Wensu pavilion in Shenyang, Wenjin Pavilion in Chengde, Wenjiang Pavilion in Yangzhou, Wenzong pavilion in Zhenjiang and Wenlai Pavilion in Hangzhou), which were built for collecting Sikuquanshu (full books of four storehouses) in Qing dynasty, were built by emulating the style of Tianyi pavilion.

The main function of the seven pavilions is collecting of books, but borrowing books for reference seldom happened. It was after the War of Opium that China began to build the library which has the characteristics of modern public libraries. The reading rooms for readers to read books were first provided in sequence in Storage Building for Old Books built in Shaoxing of Zhenjiang in 1897, the Ji angnan Library built in Nanjing of Jiangsu in 1908 and Jingshi library built in Beijing in 1916 and so on.

In the beginning of 20 century, the library buildings with European and American styles were built in sequence with the input of western cultures, such as the 'Tsinghua University' library building which was built in 1919 and enlarged in 1931, the Mengfang library of Southeastern University which was built in 1922 and enlarged in 1933 with three independent parts for collecting, borrowing and rea ding , and with uncrossed streamline for readers and books. These libraries have not only been used for collecting of books, but also for borrowing, and become the public activity sites of readers. According to statistics, there had been 2935 libraries of various kinds by 1930 and 6191 libraries by 1936 throughout the country. After the P.R. China was founded in 1949 , there have been great dev elopment in library. Especially during the past 15 years, Chinese library buildings have had breakthrough not only on numbers and scales, but also on levels. According to incomplete statistics, from 1949 to 1987, there built 1440 public libraries on and above the level of county, 1158 university libraries, 4500 special libraies, 246000 trade unions's libraries(rooms) and 32264 military libraries (note 1). Compared with the beginning of P.R. China in 1949, the numbes of various libraries have increased more than 40 times. The numbers of university libraries increased 7.9 times from 132 in 1949 to 11175 in 1989, with the total collections reaching 400 million volumes and areas totaling 4,400,000 square meter. The libraries under the China academy of science increased 7.4 times from 17 in 1949 to 143 in 1990 , with the total collection of 80,000,000 volume (note 2). Up to now, China has 2579 public libraries on /above the county level, and also has 77 independent libraries for children and juvenility, and more than 160 motional libraries (note 3).

The library buildings in different history periods1949-1957
During the period from 1949 to 1957 , most of libraries were rebuilt or enlarged. Most newly built libraries are not in large scale, except several university libraries such as the libraries of China Southern Industrial College built in 1952 (8600 square meter , 1200 reader's seats, 1,600,000 volumes), the library of China East Normal University built in 1953 and enlarged twice (20288 square met er, 900 reader's seat, 1,800,000 volumes), and the Nankai Unversity's library built in 1956 (10287 square meter, 1100 reader's seats, 1,000,000 volume). The Chinese libraries adopted management method of close shelf in past long time. For the systematization of collection and completeness of reservation, more attention was paid to the three functions of collecting, borrowing and reading, and lib raries were divided into indepenent parts. With the continued improvement and completeness of management, and more and more defenite technical requirement, the library buildings mainly with management of close shelf have been completed increasely. The library of China Southern Industrial College built in 1952 with the plane of nn turned 90 degree and the library of China East Normal University w ith the plane of nn are both divided into three large spaces of collecting, borrowing and reading according to flow line of books and journals, the main character of which is to keep stacks as indpendent unit and make other rooms around stacks. This design influenced the later ones greatly. Because of limited conditions, most of libraries built during the 1950's adopted composite structures with small opening, wood and sloop roof, and no mechanical equipments to move books. The period of 1958 1965
During the period of 1958 1965
Libraries had geat development throughout the country and many new libraries were built. The number of libraries had reached 573 with average annual increasion of 22 , and the number of university libraries also reached 434 (note 4). Among these libraries, the larger ones include the library of Heilongjiang province (11000 square meter), the library of Shanghai Academy of Science (8600 sq uare meter), the library of Beijing Normal University (9300 square meter) and the Library of Xian Transportation University (11200 square meter). By 1965, the building design of Chinese libraries adopting management method of close shelf had been nearly completed. Most of libraries were designed into traditional or little changed traditional plan of nn shape. According to statitics, about 70% of libraries built in 1960's used this design. The main idea of the design followed the principal of management of close shelf that collection is the first factor to be considered. In this design, stacks lie in the back with reading rooms in the front and circulation desk in the middle. This arrangement has definitely divided districts, convenience the management, make each streamline uncrosse d, meet the requirement of reading and management of close shelf, and also has a more simple building structure. During this period, a set of new libraries were built in this design style. Therefore, this style with same history characters and definite content under special economic, technical and manegement condition was developed into a setted library type, which was late called Chinese traditi onal library and whose shape of nn, J, ɽ, nn (turned 90 degree) and n developed from nn shape were called traditional plan.
1966 1976
During this period, the library cause suffered serious damage because of the political reason. Very few libraries were built and most of new libraries built in this period were in small scale except the Beijing University's new library in larger scale which has area of 24,000 square meter and was built in 1974. This library can be considered as the representation of traditional plan arragement of library buildings built in this period, with 2400 reading seats, 3,100,000 volumes and plan of n shape. The library absorbed the advantage of the reading rooms which had aid stacks and was divided according to speciality subjects in the late part of 1960's, therefore, had more rational functions. This is a distinquished progress of library building design. During this period, in some small libraries there also appeared some improved designs based on traditional plan, which had more flexible functions and arrangement, rational application and beautiful shape so as to make people have a new feeling. Among these libraries, the better examples are the library of Suzhou Medical College, Shanghai Science and Technical Library and the Library of Zhongqing University.
After 1977
With the Chinese goverment's solving the chaos, returning to the correct course, and performing the policy of reformation and openning, Chinese libraries cause appears new situation of flourishing development and a great set of new libraries have been built, for example: and so on.

In addition, there were also a large set of county public libraries and libraries for children and juvenility in middle and small scale. During this period, with the reform and progress of library management work, the new library had the new breakthrough in the plane of architect design in addition to the characters of large number and scale. For example , the library of Hefi industrial college was divided into four units according to function requirement. These four units were combined freely and appeared as the yard made of four houses (Siheyuan), therefore, broke the style of normal symmetric and strict layout. The plane of the library of Nanjing railway Medical College is normal rectangularity, adopting 5.0 m by 5.0 m rising planet structure with column net, large openning and depth . The library used light seperating wall to divid space, with the ability to rearrange and move the wall. The stack lies in a corner of the rectangular plane , the building of the library has same story height, which provides the conditions for future open shelf reading. This building was one of earlier practical example attempting to combine foreign design method of modular library with practic al situation in China. With the flourishing development of " four modernization construction" in China, normal traditional borrowing and reading method of books and materials cannot meet the need in large. Therefore, the requirement of borrowing and reading in open shelf were put forward in general. Out of question, this was a powerful impulse to management and building design of librar ies. In the beginning of 1980's, professionel persons sysmatically import the design method of modular library developed after the World War Two, which made more designers to explore a new way adaptive to building design of libraries in China according to the practical situation of China.

In 1987, " the Building Design Code for Library " was approved and promulgated by the Ministy of Urban and Rural Building and Environmental Protection, Ministry of Culture and State Committee of Education, and was enforced on Oct. 1 of the year. The code was the first technical regulation for building design of library since the P.R. China was founded and also was the summarization of more than 30 years' experience of building design of library. Management system of open shelf such as reading in open shelf and in stack was first put forward by universities, science and research institutes and some libraries in basic units. What this management method pay attention to are more close and wide contact and the largest shortening of distance between readers and knowledge carries, and most simple procedure of borrowing and reading. Therefore, the management system of reading in open shelves appeared and the function of collection, borrowing, reading and management in reading room began to form a unified unit, which was one of big breakthrough in building design of libraries. With the appearance of the unit mentioned above, the space of reading room was required to be enlarge d and to had adequate possibility for flexible arragement so that the opening and depth of building were enlarged. In order to solve the contradiction of light and ventralization and strengthen changebility of application, some new forms were studied out, in that reading space can be freely divided, actively seperated, changed in area and adjusted. For example, the library of Funan University h ave made the attemption and acheived good effect. Afer that, the requirement for unified column net, unified floor loads and even for unified story height to the design of libraries were put forward by many designers for the purpose of making the whole building more adaptive. In addition to this, with the import of advanced technology and equipment of library such as computer, microfilm and vedi o/hearing and so on, a set of new library with Chinese characteristics were sprung up in sequence during the period. At same time, most architect also paid attention to interior and exterior environmental design and strive to create a new, unaffected and cultural shape, and provide interior space of good reading condition for readers, which was also one of the characteristics of library building in this period.

Now, some library buildings having characteristics and breakthrough are generalized as follows: Design of the Library of Sichuan University was based on reading and management of open shelves, breaking traditional plane of nn shape composed of four large parts of collecting, borrowing, reading and management, and adopting design method of modular type to unify column net and form several facult and student reading units in different district, and several parts of the district of stack, reservation and special collection and so on. Each district depends on other and also is independent ralatively. Considering open shelf reading, the library was designed for the possibility to enter into the stack to read, with 2.8 m story height. Each stack story is structure story using beamless roof a nd motivable shelves. The advantage of this design is that the flexible arrangment in near future and reading and management of open shelves in long future can be made Chinese libraries building gradually formed own design module (close shelves: 1250 mm, open shelves: 1500 mm) by absorbing the advantage of foreign modular design.

Major openning and dimension of column are determined based on times of basic module, which are not only adaptive to desk and chair arrangement of reading room, but also adative to shelf layout in stack, with the possibility of interchangebility. By practical summarization, the column net dimension in general use is 5.0 m by 5.0 m for close shelves and 7.5 m by 7.5 m for open shelves. This unit area under column net is more adaptive to reading of open shelf, collection of close shelf, reading in the stack and division of general official aid rooms.

The library of Funan University
Which has one story under ground and eight stories above ground, use centralized plane and vertical layout of low stack and high reading room. The library has the faculty reading room in lower story and student reading room in upper story, with the 30 m by 35 m plane of standard story. The middle part of the library had aid stack between two stories, connected with reading space, which can be use d for close shelf, half open shelf, and aslo for full open shelf, with the advantage of flexible use, elasticity of enlarging and contracting, and adaptivity to development and change in long future. During this period, there are also some exploration for the problem whether the library can be built in high building. In addition to the library of Funan University and Baozhaolong Library of Shang hai Transportation University, the library of Wuhan University, breaking 4 - 5 story limit of regular libraries, designed 8 story building and use vertical layout of high stack and reading room, with each story having basic unit consisting of basic stacks and reading rooms. Each story has reading room and related stacks according to speciality, which can be used for close shelves and open shelves , shorten the traffic line, have direct contact and also simple plane combination. That faculty reading rooms lie in upper stories aided by elevator and student reading rooms lie under the four story better solve the contradiction of centralization of person movement and unconvenience of vertical traffic, which explored a new way for libraries of high building.

The new library of Tsinghua university which was built in 1991, was built beside the old library. Because the design fully consider unification of forms between new and old library and harmonious of the new and old library with space environment of nearby buildings, the new library was unified as a whole body with old one after the new library was completed, which got the good appraisal from all fields. What deserve to be mentioned is the library of Beijing Agricultural University completed in July of 1990, which were designed and constructed carefully according to Chinese own conditions after the advantages of foreign modular library were fully studied and absorbed, and realized large space (6.6 m by 6.6mcolunm net), full open shelf, and an organic whole of four functions of collectin g, borrowing, reading and management. After the library have been used for 3 years, it was considered unanimously as one of good libraries among the China's modern libraries under the appraisal of experts from both the fields of library and architects. The efforts and attemption of the library to realize modernization of library have made active contribution to construction and development of ch inese university libraries in the future. The library of Shenzhen City, the Library of Guangdong Provience and new Beijing Library which is the highest level in China can be considered as the representations of libraries with high standard , technology and level in this period. The appearence of them marks that the construction of Chinese modern library has reached the international advanced lev els. The common characteristics of them are as follows:

  1. The plane layout does not follow the conventional pattern, but fully consider the need of functions and use,with free combination, flexibility and spacious:

  2. Fully meet the need of open shelf reading and management. The column net, story height and load are unified and there is large openning and depth in building design. The major reading space make the four functions of collecting, borrowing, reading and management into an organic whole.

  3. There are complete facilities. The libraries have not only general subject reading, but also have the reading of rare books and special books: have not only the function of borrowing and getting the books, but also have the function of exchanging and transmitting information, consultation, video reading and academic exchange. In addition, the Children and disabilities can also read in the li braries.

  4. Facilities are advanced. The system of computer management, microfilm copy, video production, security and fire extinguishing,transportation, communication and television have all reached international level.

  5. The traditional major axis (hall circulation hall basic stack) has recede to second consider, substituted by convenient traffic and spacious communicating space and yard, which provide good environment for academic exchange, contact, consultation, and transmitting of information. Most of library have unified the reading, rest and acadamic exchange to an organic whole and developed toward the direction of multi functions.

  6. The building pattern of many libraries have obvious nationality characteristics and local style,and also made the contribution for creating Chinese own new building figures in art modelling.

The new Beijing Library
Which was approved by central goverment in 1980, was included in national construction planning according to the design plan approved by premier Zhouenlai. The library has area of 140,000 square meter, 20 million volume and 2,000 reading seat. The major building can be divided into 11 units, with basic stack, rare book and social science reading unit, social science reading and study building, ca talog and circulation hall, natural science reading building, natural science reading unit, newspaper and audio visual material building, material reading unit, official affair building, exhibition hall and report hall and so on. The open shelf reading is the main consider in design and multifunction of collection, information and so on are considered in symposis. The library is a super large bui lding with story structure, designed according to 8 degree earthquake resistant grade, having 3 5 grade air defence basement. The library building is site cast reinforced concrete frame structure system. The single or double side plastic plate with dense ribs are used in floors and the complicate structures such as steel streatched table and large space net and so on are also used. The technical system is complete. There are secruit system of alarm for protection and extinguishing of fire controlled by micro computer, air condition system for cool and heat, program control telephon system, trasmitting messege by air, automatally trasmitting system of books, elevator system, power system controlled by high and low voltage switch, heating and lighting system, control center of electric com puter, net system, closed supervision television, brodcast, interprete in same time, record, vedio and microfilm, etc.

The new Beijing Library are considered to be the representation of Chinese modern library buildings in this period not only on building design and technical level, but also on shape and arts, in which much experience can be summarized and absorbed by late people.

Part 2: Development of Chinses library on the direction of building modernization

In general, modern libraries have three large characeristics and eight aims:
That is high efficency, flexibility, good environment, microfilm of collection, audio and video of books, computerization of catolog, retrieval, borrowing and reading;
automation of transmit system, audio visual of reading, net of information system, science of management procedure and changebility of adaption to development.

At present, the "eight aims" have been realized at different degrees in newly built libraries. The policy of undertaking building design based on the directive idea of open shelf has been accepted by large numbers of libraries building designers and readers. Therefore, It is necessary to summarize experience more deeply, strength the understand and complete practice so that chinese librar y cause can develope continously to good direction. According to Chinese situation, study and use "modular library" for reference. 1, In the aspect of shorting the distance between acceptors of knowledge and information(readers) and knowledge media (carrier) and advancing efficiency of borrowing and reading, great amount of work and attempt has been made for recent more than 10 years in China. The open borrowing and reading, and management method such as open shelf reading and enterting stack reading, etc. which give readers most convinience and most effect service have been accepted and welcomed by both librarians and readers. Therefore, after World War Two, the building type of modular library developed in Europe and America, attract the attention of chinese library field. The obvious characteristics of this type is designing according to a certain principle of modular type, having bigger space and unified column net, story height and loading capacity ( called " 3 unification" in abbreviation), formming different function space by funiture and try to adapting to need and developement of multi functions of libraries (note 5). Therefore, this type has stronger vitality. Because the foreign examples are not fully adaptive to chinese situation, in the practice of building library in China, the " 3 unifications" principle of dular library are absorbed in more cases. But the importances of bigger space, more adaptivity, making the collection, borrowing, reading and manageing into one body and forming the relative independent work and building unit are not fully understand.

I believe that it is convinient to readers and has obvious effect to centralize reading area relatively, enlarge space appropriately and increasing books which can be readed by readers. The quality of management work can also be advanced so that librarians have further understand and command to the books in the units under charge of them, and there are possibility to connect contact and communica tion between readers and librarian to make librarians in each units of reservation, borrowing, reading and management become important media between readers and books and catalyst to make knowledge and information to produce efficiency most fully. Therefore, clerks are not only circulation workers and reservation workers, but are more material workers, consultors and information workers, even th e instructors of readers for study. This is the direction for future development and inject the new blood into library work and give the library new vitality. The future library should be the service center of comprehensive communication of knowledge, materials and information, etc.

Just by this reason, there are more urgent need to enlarge suitablely reading space of library, and this will be certainly realized. Try best to quantitize the design of library A building is matter, but also has the side of psyche; building is engineering, but also has the requirement of arts. Therefore, it is not possible to demand building design to quantitate in each step and each procedure, but the library can not all be designed by sense perceptions. Eevery affairs always has objective appraisal standards and the parts which can be quantitated should be tried best to be determined by quantity. Such building design can only just be more scientific. The problems such as " 3 unifications" need to be unified further. What "3 unifications" means is the unification of lo ading, column net and story height of reservation and reading space in modular library.

At present, the "3 unifications" is made only in a library self, but under the same conditions, the libraries are not unified each other. According to statistics, the loads, story height and column net of more tham 10 large libraries which were built recently are all not unified, each one having own parameters.

Therefore, the problem of "3 unifications" should be studied as an important subjects, striving to search for a best datus which is more adaptive to multi needs and is economic so that the "3 unifications" are really realized.

(1) Loads:
By investigation, the basic loads of stacks are 400, 500, 550, 600, 650 kg/square meter and even more. The difference of highest and lowest load is 500%. So big difference exist two dangers: (n) if lowest load is reasonable, the highest load causes big economy and materials waste (n) if the highest load is reasonable, the lowest load will cause unsafty of structure . The results of both the two problems are serious and needs to be studied urgently and a definete value needs to be made. I belive that for comprehensive space of reservation and reading, the loads should be unified as 400 500 kg/square meter.
(2) Story height:
At present, for reservation space of story shelf type, there are story height of 4.2m, 3.9m, 3.8m and even 3.0m. The area of these libraries is nearly same, but the difference between biggest story height and smallest story height is more than 30%. For house with several stories, each 10m reduction of story height will low 1% total cost. If there are 60 cm difference of story height in above men tioned libraries, the total cost will be saved by 6%. Such save is so big so that it will attract our constructors and designers enough attention.For piling up type story height, there are more difference. The piling up type story height is normally about 5m. Compared with the 4m piling up story height, the 5m piling up story height can not be considered conceptly to save more cost, because comp ared with space used by each readers, 5m piling up story height can save 10% cost than 4m piling up story height.Seen by above mentioned statements, unification problem of story height needs to be solved by quantitation and waste of space is waste of investment.
(3) Column net:
Basic modules adaptive to Chinese standard book shelf and normal reading desk and chair is generally considered as 1.25m, so under the conditions of closed shelf reading of library, the stacks and reading rooms frequently adopt 5m by 5m basic column net. After adopting open shelf reading, the book shelves need to be put in reading rooms and the distance between the shelves are expected to be enl arged untill 1.4 1.5m, but the difference of closed shelves in stacks can still be kept as 1.25m. In order to take account of the arrangement of reading desks and chairs, and multi requirements of reservations in both open and close shelves, 7. 5m column net can be adopted to meet above mentioned consider and requirement, but 7.2m and 6m column net are not big enough to make good use of area.By analysis of practical examples, using 7.5m column net can save not only about 40% structural columns, but also a great amount of usable area than using 5m column net. According to statistics, for a library of 1000 square meter, using 7.5m column net can save about usable area of 360 square meter than using 5m column net, that is, using rate is rised about 5%, which is equivalent to reserve 1 mil lon books in addition. Pay attention to environmental design and create reading conditions of high level. Environment is materials and is also space.

Environment also has obvious use functions and value of appreciation of arts. The creation of environment has same importance as the creation of buildings.

  1. Try best to protect natural environment and maintain original equivalence of ecology and natural appearance, especially when undertaking " seven connections and one level " before constructions, protection of ecology environment should be kept in minds and we can not think that the more level and smooth, the better the site is for ecology.

  2. Under the condition of unfavourable natural environment, try best to get the effect of natural environment through construction in later period. For example, exterior environments are imported into buildings and mutual penetration of communication between outdoor space and indoor space is made. In addition to green environment, indoor artificial environment also includes reading environment. A reading environment with the effect of homelike academic living rooms can be created through elaborate design and arrangement of furniture, and providing of various kind of apparatus which are convenient to readers.

  3. Strength the construction of sound and light environment and physical environment such as artificail weather, etc. and create reading environment of high standard by scientific method. For example, the quiet environment of reading rooms is maintained by a set of building physical methods such as absorbing sound, insulating sound and preventing noise, but it is very difficult to keep very qui et environment. How to solve this problem? I think that some active physical methods may also be used, for example, some very low, clear and beautiful music is played in reading rooms to cover some scattered noise so as to keep relative quiet reading environment.

  4. Pay attention to creation of psychological environment. Good environment can give people psychic enjoyment, and psychological feedback of people to environment can produce association extension and new feeling. For example, brown colour environment gives people the feeling of stable and deep; orange or yellow colour environment give people the feeling of light and activity; blue or green colo ur environment give people the feeling of clear and open. The colour environment can even cause excitation or deep. Using colour laws to decorating buildings and indoor can get expected psychological effect. By same principle, the difference of feeling to quality of different materials can cause different association and feedback. To design buildings into different disposition can reach different effect. Introduce behaviour science and improve the library quality from deep levels.

(1) Distance: From the view of behaviour science,the distance to keep between one person to another relatively under different relation, occasion and different contact method is different. People live under certain environment and have desirable undisturbed least space, which is called the domain of people. By investigation, the domain is about 70 120 cm. If this requirement can not be me t, people will feel crowded and unsafety.At present, seats in our libraries are arranged in very compact method and distance between two seats is only 70 80 cm. I think that this arrangement violate behaviour law of people in some degree. Therefore, we can often find that readers don't sit by shoulder or on opposite side when there are not many readers, because they don't hope their domain to b e contracted. For this purpose, the distance between two seats in reading rooms ought to be enlarged to about 100 cm or seats may be insulated or sheltered in some degree so that readers feel their domains not to be encroached.

(2) The size of rooms is a very important problem of library buildings. If a reading room is a little big, some people will always worry that there will be noise and disturb, but, in fact the order of readers in a big reading room is much better than that in a small reading room. In addition to the reason of management, analysing from behaviour science, it is mainly because psychology of r eaders in reading rooms of different size are different. The more people, the bigger mutual restrictive force there is, and the more standardized behaviour readers have. When there are only a few readers, the self control force of people will be relaxed and the behaviour will be out of control. Therefore, seeing from behaviour science, a little bigger reading room is feasible and also necessary. How large a consulting room is better and how long a consulting desk is better? From behaviour science, I think that the size of a consulting room and length of a consulting desk are based on that consultors can concentrate their attention and deal with the problems asked by all readers. By investigation, the biggest number of a consultor can serve at on time is 7, because according to people's behaviour of identification of quantity, the number which a person can control most agilely and quickly at one time is not over 7. How to determine the size of a study room? Determination of the size of study rooms is also based on the investigation result of behaviour of users of these rooms. Study rooms are mainly used for study and discussion and it is best for each participant to have chan ce to give his views and to have conditions to pay his attention to discussion. According to statistics, when there are 24 delegates as a group in a small seminars, there are often 6 participants who will not give their views; when there are 12 delegates as a group, there are only about 1 participant who will not give his views. Therefore, if we want to discuss some problem with high efficiency and high quality, it is necessary to limit the number of participants. I think that it is better to design a study room according to the capacity of about 10 participants. This small study room is the most efficient one.

The building designs introducing the views of behaviour science has made more deep step than these designs based only on function and activity. This try and attemption has just begun and I wish my colleagues to consider this factor in future building design and explore this field actively. It is estimated that some breakthrough achievements are going to be made if we continous to do this researc h.It is an inexorable trend that libraries realize electronic controlled system in every field. The wide application of Multi Medium will necessary bring revolutionary change again to the function of libraries. Chinese libraries will inevitablly develope toward this direction in near future. But this is another broad subject and now I don't discuss this problem in details. Chinese library buil dings, with the continous development of Chinese library cause, will certainly have new development. Duing the course of development, we want to exchange and study mutually with friends and colleagues of all countries for the purpose of progress in common.

The third draft, April 1995, Beijing

Note 1: Chinese Big Encyclopaedia " Chinese library course "
Note 2: Chinese Big Encyclopaedia " Chinese library course "
Note 3: The People's Daily 1995 02 18 " one of inquiry and analysis on the problems of public libraries"
Note 4: Chinese Big Encyclopaedia " Chinese library course "
Note 5: Chinese Big Encyclopaedia > "Modular libraries "